Who Was Karl Marx?

Karl Heinrich Marx, born on May 5, 1818, was a famous German philosopher, Journalist, economist, sociologist, historian, political theorist, and revolutionary. His parents were Heinrich Marx and Henriette Pressburg.

Karl Marx was one of the most influential philosophers and economists in human history. His works in economics have influenced a lot of intellectuals, political parties, labor unions, and artists.

Karl studied philosophy and law at many universities, such as the University of Bonn, the University of Berlin, and the University of Jena. Although his nationality was Prussian, he later became a stateless citizen due to his political publications.

Karl Marx was considered one of the best architects of the modern world of social science.

Biography

Karl Marx was born to Heinrich Mark and Henriette Pressburg on 5th May, 1818. Karl was born in Trier, an ancient city that was part of Prussia. Karl’s grandfather was a spiritual leader of the Jewish religion, so originally, his family hails from the Jews. However, at an early age, Karl formally converted to Christianity.

His father, Heinrich Marx, was one of the first during their time to receive education and eventually became a lawyer. As a child, Karl had a comfortable childhood as his father had a good source of income. His father even owned multiple vineyards.

Karl Marx was a great thinker and influenced many great people for his works in Philosophy and economics. He was deeply interested in the ideas of Voltaire and Immanuel Kant, who were also great philosophers.

Karl Marx’s father, Heinrich Marx, started working as an attorney to the state in the year 1815; he was later transferred to Porta Nigra, so he had to move his family to his place of work. His mother, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch woman from a wealthy Jewish business family.

Karl Marx was the third child out of nine children. After his brother’s death in the year 1819, he became the eldest son of the Marx family. His family converted to Christianity in the year 1824.

At a very young age, Marx was educated privately by his father. In 1830, he entered the Trier high school and did his early education. By the age of 17, Marx traveled to Bonn for his further studies as he was very interested in philosophy and literature.However, his father wanted to become a lawyer. He entered the University of Bonn in the year 1835 and studied literature and Philosophy.

In the university, Marx joined a poetry club that was monitored by the police. He also joined a drinking club known as the Trier Tavern drinking society, where they discussed a lot of ideas together. He also served as the club’s co-president and was involved in many political disputes.

Marx was a bright student in the university, but since his grades seemed to decrease later; his father had to transfer him to a better and a more serious university. So, he was sent to the University of Berlin.

Health

Karl Marx had poor health, and he suffered from various kinds of illness. One of the main reasons for his illness was his drinking habits. Although he was a great thinker, it is said that he remained drunk almost all the time. After joining the drinking club at the University of Bonn, he began to drink more than ever which later led to many health complications.

He was affected with a very serious nervous disorder in the year 1877 which he dealt with hallucinating drugs. He was also very fond of pickled cucumbers, smoked fish, and caviar. These foods are very risky for people suffering from liver problems like Karl himself. Karl Marx was also addicted to smoking which also contributed a lot to his deteriorating health. Since he did not have much money, he smoked low-quality cigarettes.

Family

Karl Heinrich Marx was married to Jenny Von Westphalen and had seven children. He lived with his family in London after he was considered stateless due to his political publications. As a father of seven, Karl did not have much money to support his family.

Unfortunately, four of his children died at a very early age, and only three of them could make it to adulthood. His family mostly lived in a rented house or flat since he has a low source of income and has to travel from place to place very frequently.

His works

Karl Marx’s contribution to the polity in particular and society, in general, is manifold. Being a social thinker, he was propagated numerous theories which have helped mankind understand society better. Some of his works include

  • Alienated labor
  • Women and Society
  • Marx and Religion
  • Marxism Theory

Death

Karl Marx died in London on March 14, 1883, shortly after the demise of his wife in 1881. After the death of his wife, he remained sick for fifteen months and developed various sicknesses like pleurisy and bronchitis that later killed him. Karl was found dead peacefully in his armchair.…

What Is Timocracy?

To define timocracy, it is nothing but a form of government. Here only property owners can participate in the government activities and formation.

Timocracy – A Medieval Government

The timocracy government was defined and formed during the era of Aristotle. In the Aristotle’s era it is a state where the property owners will handle the day to day affairs of the government and people’s affairs. Of course, there is a more extreme form of timocracy. It is where the power is derived from the wealth irrespective of the social and civic responsibility. Also, it might shift in terms of the form and sometimes become plutocracy where the wealthy people rule.

Timocracy – An Unjust Government

In the Republic, Plato often talks about the basic five regimes. Among them four are the most unjust. Timocracy is termed as the first unjust regime. Why? Well, Aristocracy often degenerates timocracy when there is a miscalculation in the part of the governed class.

In addition, the next generation of auxiliaries and guardians consists of people of inferior nature (here it means individuals having souls made of bronze or iron which is opposed to the auxiliaries and guardians whose soul is made of silver and gold).

Choosing A Leader In Timocracy

In timocracy, selecting leaders is inclining rather to a high simple minded and spirited type. Here they are more suited for war. Frankly, the city-state of the Sparta gave Plato with the original world model for such a kind of government. Some of the modern observers feel and describe Sparta as one-party or totalitarian state.

However, the details of this kind of society is exclusively from the enemies of Sparta. The basic idea of something like a militarism kind of stratocracy reflects the basic and fundamental values that the Spartan society followed. Now monarchy, communism, democracy, and socialism are the most common as well as popular form of government. However, not many people know a lot about them.

History Of Timocracy

snapfuck app

Keep in mind that there are a various kind of government which are theoretical. Of course, some of them have not happened yet and even chances of them ever happening is nil. Now certain theoretical governments are just controlled by people who have developed the civilization’s tech. While others are controlled by researchers and scientist who are governing the technology that they have built.

In this regard, timocracy is created by those individuals who have or are the owners of wealth and land. They often rule due to honor or ambition. The timocracy kind of government was just an idea. This was conceived by the Athenian ruler Solon somewhere in the 6th century BC. He created timocracy and gave powers to rulers into his own timocracy.

As per hierarchy, there are four tiers inside the civilization’s population. For example, if you are a manual laborer, you were considered to be the member of the ‘thethes’ tier of the timocracy. Here the thetes are considered to be the lowest rung of the ladder and they won’t get to be elected to the office. But just being a member of the poorest class had one major benefit that most Americans would like. These people never paid any taxes.

Now the next tier present in the ladder is called as the zeugitae. They were nothing but tillers of the land. Frankly, their class was defined in few different manner, and all of it was very much applicable. For being a member of this tier, one needs to be at least a proud owner of the pair of pack animals. Also, one needs to produce at least about two hundred bushels of produce each year (this was the major requirement).

Even though you end up paying taxes, still you could hold minor offices which no one in the higher tiers would ever want. In addition, you can even purchase armor, making it easy for the zeugitae to serve in armies as hoplites.

Now if you are producing only about hundred more of barrels each year, say about three hundred, then you are considered to be the member of the knight class or the hippies. Here you would be able to get weapons and armor along with cavalry all due to the extra money. Frankly, members of this tier would get huge amount of respect and be able to hold offices just above the ladder (higher the ladder).

Conclusion

Now even though democracy won’t suggest having a tier system with regard to the amount of wealth and property you have in exchange for the government qualification. The chances of getting office will simply increase if you have both in the timocracy government.…