Who Was Karl Marx?

Karl Heinrich Marx, born on May 5, 1818, was a famous German philosopher, Journalist, economist, sociologist, historian, political theorist, and revolutionary. His parents were Heinrich Marx and Henriette Pressburg.

Karl Marx was one of the most influential philosophers and economists in human history. His works in economics have influenced a lot of intellectuals, political parties, labor unions, and artists.

Karl studied philosophy and law at many universities, such as the University of Bonn, the University of Berlin, and the University of Jena. Although his nationality was Prussian, he later became a stateless citizen due to his political publications.

Karl Marx was considered one of the best architects of the modern world of social science.


Karl Marx was born to Heinrich Mark and Henriette Pressburg on 5th May, 1818. Karl was born in Trier, an ancient city that was part of Prussia. Karl’s grandfather was a spiritual leader of the Jewish religion, so originally, his family hails from the Jews. However, at an early age, Karl formally converted to Christianity.

His father, Heinrich Marx, was one of the first during their time to receive education and eventually became a lawyer. As a child, Karl had a comfortable childhood as his father had a good source of income. His father even owned multiple vineyards.

Karl Marx was a great thinker and influenced many great people for his works in Philosophy and economics. He was deeply interested in the ideas of Voltaire and Immanuel Kant, who were also great philosophers.

Karl Marx’s father, Heinrich Marx, started working as an attorney to the state in the year 1815; he was later transferred to Porta Nigra, so he had to move his family to his place of work. His mother, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch woman from a wealthy Jewish business family.

Karl Marx was the third child out of nine children. After his brother’s death in the year 1819, he became the eldest son of the Marx family. His family converted to Christianity in the year 1824.

At a very young age, Marx was educated privately by his father. In 1830, he entered the Trier high school and did his early education. By the age of 17, Marx traveled to Bonn for his further studies as he was very interested in philosophy and literature.However, his father wanted to become a lawyer. He entered the University of Bonn in the year 1835 and studied literature and Philosophy.

In the university, Marx joined a poetry club that was monitored by the police. He also joined a drinking club known as the Trier Tavern drinking society, where they discussed a lot of ideas together. He also served as the club’s co-president and was involved in many political disputes.

Marx was a bright student in the university, but since his grades seemed to decrease later; his father had to transfer him to a better and a more serious university. So, he was sent to the University of Berlin.


Karl Marx had poor health, and he suffered from various kinds of illness. One of the main reasons for his illness was his drinking habits. Although he was a great thinker, it is said that he remained drunk almost all the time. After joining the drinking club at the University of Bonn, he began to drink more than ever which later led to many health complications.

He was affected with a very serious nervous disorder in the year 1877 which he dealt with hallucinating drugs. He was also very fond of pickled cucumbers, smoked fish, and caviar. These foods are very risky for people suffering from liver problems like Karl himself. Karl Marx was also addicted to smoking which also contributed a lot to his deteriorating health. Since he did not have much money, he smoked low-quality cigarettes.


Karl Heinrich Marx was married to Jenny Von Westphalen and had seven children. He lived with his family in London after he was considered stateless due to his political publications. As a father of seven, Karl did not have much money to support his family.

Unfortunately, four of his children died at a very early age, and only three of them could make it to adulthood. His family mostly lived in a rented house or flat since he has a low source of income and has to travel from place to place very frequently.

His works

Karl Marx’s contribution to the polity in particular and society, in general, is manifold. Being a social thinker, he was propagated numerous theories which have helped mankind understand society better. Some of his works include

  • Alienated labor
  • Women and Society
  • Marx and Religion
  • Marxism Theory


Karl Marx died in London on March 14, 1883, shortly after the demise of his wife in 1881. After the death of his wife, he remained sick for fifteen months and developed various sicknesses like pleurisy and bronchitis that later killed him. Karl was found dead peacefully in his armchair.…

5 Famous Political Scientists To Learn About

Gabriel Abraham Almond(1911-2002)

He completed his post-graduation in the year 1938 from the University of Chicago. From 1939 to 1947 he was a professor at Brooklyn College. After having a great experience by teaching at Princeton University and Yale University, he got a prestigious opportunity as a professor of political science in the year 1963 at Stanford University. He served as a professor there until the year 1968. From the year 1965 to 1960 he was the president of the American political science Association and in the year 1981, he received James Madison award. He was an author of many excellent books and one of them was the “Civic culture” in the year 1963. A few of the books written by Almond as an author or co-author are as following:

  • “The Struggle for Democracy in Germany”(edited & written by Almond in 1949)
  • “The American People & Foreign Policy”
  • “The Politics of Developing Areas”
  • “The Appeals of communism”
  • “Political Development”
  • “Plutocracy & Politics in New York City”
  • “Progress & its discontents”

Emily Greene Balch(1867-1961)

After and during World War 1, she was a leader for women’s moment for peace. She was also an economist, a pacifist, and a sociologist. She was awarded the Nobel prize for Peace jointly with John Raleigh Mott in the year 1946. She was a kind-hearted woman and she had a thorough study regarding the Slavik immigrants who were a part of the United States. In the year 1889, she got graduated from the college of Bryn Mawr in the first class. Further studies were pursued at the University of Chicago and she has received professional training in the field of social work from a few followers off Jacob Riis. She has started her career at Wellesley College in the year 1896 and she became a professor of political economy and social science in the year 1913. She was an active promoter of child welfare reforms. All her focus and attention were only on one thing “world peace” and this was the reason why she opposed the entry into World War 1 and so she was dismissed from Wellesley as a  professor. She had been elected as an honorary International president in the year 1936. She was also an author of a few books which are as follows:

  • “Outline of economics”-it was written in the year 1899
  • “A study of conditions of city life”-that was written in the year 1903
  • “One Europe”- which was written in the year 1947
  • “Approaches to the great settlement”-which was written in 1918
  • “Refugees as assets”-which was written in the year 1939
  • “Beyond nationalism”-which was written in the year 1952

Murray Edelman(1919-2001)

Graduated from Bucknell University and received a bachelor’s degree in social science. From the University of Chicago in the year 1942, he has earned a master’s degree in history. From the year 1948 to 1966 worked as a faculty for the University of Illinois. From the year 1966 to 1990 he served as a faculty for the University of Wisconsin. In his books, he has mentioned the difference between the Expectations of the politics and the reality of politics. Here are a few lists of the books which he has written:

Alexander Wendt

He was born in the year 1958 in Germany and later he has become an American political scientist and an educator. He has studied international relations in politics and he is one of the most influential theorists. In the year 1989, he has graduated from the University of Minnesota. He was a Professor at the University from the year 1989 to 1997 and from the year 1997 to 1999 he was a Professor at Dartmouth College. From the year 1999 to 2005 he served the University of Chicago and then finally he joined Ohio State University in the year 2004.

The very famous Publication of Wendt’s essay made him the leading thinker of constructivism in international relations, which says “Anarchy is what States Make of it: the social construction of power politics”.

Harvey Wheeler(1918-2004)

He is best known for his non-fiction political science books. He had written “Fail-Safe” in the year 1962. The book was about an accidental nuclear attack and how the release of this made the public feel unsafe.…

What Is a Parliamentary System in Government?

As citizens of our own country, we often tend to read or learn about our home country’s type of government. In most odd cases, we are ignorant of any other kind of government functional in other countries. This article here will help you acquaint yourself with the basics of a Parliamentary System in a Government.

Here is a brief outline of what to expect from this article:

  • What is a Parliament?
  • How does a Parliamentary System form in a Government? 
  • What makes up a Parliamentary System in Government?
  • Elections in a Parliamentary system Government

What is a Parliament?

Oxford dictionary describes Parliament as “the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country.” The other name of the Parliamentary System is Parliamentary democracy.

The requisite of any modern democracy is a Government. A legislative body comprising of government is what makes up the Parliament in modern-day history. 

How does a Parliamentary System form in a Government? 

In a Parliamentary type of government, a national election is the only way to select the members of the Parliament. 
The members of the Parliament are members of the winning party. Any political party that wins the highest number of winning seats forms the government. 

In some cases, if two political parties have equal votes, there can be a coalition. The coalition of which can be of two or more political parties. Whichever of the two – a single or coalition party wins the majority of seats becomes the ruling party. 

One important point to remember is that, in a parliamentary system of government, the ruling political party holds the real power and not an individual. 

What makes up a Parliamentary System in Government?

  • Head of State

Traditionally, the Prime Minister takes the post of the head of the government. The Prime Minister of any country takes the title of being the head of the country.

He/she is a member and usually the most potent contender/leader of the winning or coalition political party. The ruling party makes the appointment of the Prime Minister after a unanimous vote. The ruling party here is not to be confused; it is none other than the winning party.

In contrast, some countries follow a constitutional monarch, particularly evident in the United Kingdom. Here, the Monarch takes the role of titular head of the State. The elected members of the Parliament have to swear an oath towards loyalty to the Monarch. In addition, the Monarch has the authority to dissolve a government. 

Some other countries, such as Africa, have a republican government. Here, the leader of the government is not the Prime Minister. Instead, the President serves as head of State as well as the leader of the government. 

  • Legislation

The primary function of a Parliament is to make, decide and approve laws for the country. Any legislative proposals proceed to the Parliament in the form of Bills. 

For the Bills to pass as a law, it requires the approval of the Parliament’s legislation. Most countries with a parliamentary system in a government have two houses for legislation. The legislators of the Parliament take place in a House. 

Most countries follow a bicameral house system, meaning it has an Upper House and a Lower House. In the bicameral house, the passing of the law requires the approval of both the Upper and Lower house. Although, in the end, Parliament has a more significant say for passing any bill.

The upper house in a bicameral parliament consists of fewer members. In the UK, the House of the Lords makes up the upper house. In the US, the upper house is the Senate. Some countries have a unicameral house, meaning a single house.

  • Cabinet

While the legislation is the cumulative responsibility of the Parliament, there are everyday matters that need attention and focus. For which the head of State appoints cabinet ministers. These cabinet ministers take charge and overlook the issues and functions of separate departments. 

Elections in a Parliamentary system Government

In a Parliamentary system Government, elections take place at routine intervals. The most common time frame between elections ranges from four to five years. However, in some countries, the Prime Minister has the authority to dissolve a Parliament. If that happens, the Prime Minister can hold a proposed election before the routine time.

In addition, a Parliament can remove a ruling Prime Minister during its tenure at the post. The dissolving of a government can take place through a “no confidence” vote by the Parliament legislature. In such cases, new elections occur for the re-election of the Head of State/Prime Minister. Of course there has been controversy in this regard, one such instance being when an elected official was caught on a free milf dating app attempting to find an extramarital affair. However, there are many such cases in which a no confidence vote has been threatened, but never actually enacted. Either way the mechanism allows for a balance of power in theory.…

Why Study Political Science?

Political is a fascinating ever evolving area of study that has challenged the worlds great minds throughout history. This video from Duke University Department of Political Science does a great in depth job of explaining the value in studying and majoring in political science. Check it out:

What is Oligarchy?

Oligarchy is a form of power structure found in businesses and political organizations. In this structure few people control everything while the majority are condescended upon and are not in any way participant to the spoils and profits, but may rest upon on the belief that they are being noticed and given to rare service or help as and when people at the top in such power structure thinks it as their duty to do so. Here, there is a sharp contrast between the rights of the power among the many with that of the superimposed self styled dictatorial mindset of the few that would never allow their power to be infringed upon in anyway.

Most oligarchies from the past were from noble classes and were famed for being snobbish in their deals with that of lesser ranked people at the bottom. Apart from noble class, oligarchies are found among organizations due to their wealth, education, religious, military and political control. Many such power structures are often controlled by families with younger generation of the family line taking on the reign in due course. These people may be either capable or lack willingness at administration yet they remain in power for the very reason that they have inherited power and influence from their previous generation. These people may even think that it is their birthright to cling to power and very often are tyrannical in their behaviors.

Oppression of the Majority

Most oligarchies function with the single minded pursuit of class division at the bottom levels of political, social, business or religious organizations. They refuse to rectify existing rules that have always been to their favor and may even oppress anyone trying to do so or even influencing others into doing so. They are quick to point out through their own behaviors to lesser folks that are in majority at the bottom that it is for their own interest and good of the organization, country or social order to remain in absolute obedience. This power structure has often been considered by philosophers, writers and other social scientists as the very reason why some groups of people holding on to power seldom allows the individual, social and other basic human rights to those at the lower rungs of the ladder.

According to experts it has been seen that although oppression may be the password of oligarchs yet some people in the masses tend to find this to be quite all right too. They feel that there are less chances of anarchy to happen when the power to yield is in few hands only. They also feel that power having been concentrated in a few hands may act as deterrent to those that may feel like creating pockets of inconsistencies and confusion in order to make another oligarchic power structure on their own.

People at lower bottom may think that since power rests on a few they may find relative comfort zone in their own social, business or religious circles while larger issues pertaining to society may be handled by the oligarchs. Yet, people on the top may have less interest in taking risky ventures that may benefit the masses or employees of an organization on the whole. They seldom need to face new challenges and competition and remain conservative. This obviously lessens the spirit of the majority as well as lack of newer ground breaking ideas whether in businesses, politics or social orders.

Power and Wealth in Few Hands

It is quite obvious as you may find throughout history that oligarchies have a distinction of gathering wealth that only rests on those at the top of the power ladder. In sharp contrast, the masses always remain poor and lack basic amenities of life. Even though they may aspire to be wealthy they hardly lack the chance as the oligarchs would never allow this to come true.

This is because the elite always control all policies and hold legislative powers. In business oligarchy they try to influence the political class with their money and gifts making it immensely tougher for others to get into their competitive line. As such with businesses too coming under the control of few, there will be less diversity and even lesser risk taking initiative on part of businesses. Further, they may even damage other businesses so as to thwart competition and destroy the chances of newer products from appearing in the market. They do this by controlling prices of their products as well as restricting economical access to raw materials and by hindering supply demand functions.

However, oligarchs may not be all that bad for creative people as they may easily find their projects funded as well given a chance of bringing out new ideas. They allow this as they feel that in the end it would support their own goals although they may still find in difficult to accept new ideas detrimental to their own interest brought before them.

Oligarchical Business Practices

Some industries and specific companies within them have been accused of maintaining oligarchical structures within their businesses. The tech industry has been a target of many as a sector in which the balance of power and profit has not been distributed. Specifically in video gaming and adult tech related companies suspicions have arised. This was an early criticism of backpage before its alternatives like bedpage, free sexfinder, and others rose in popularity. Specific gaming companies have come under scrutiny for their practices and structures as well. …

What is Political Science?

Political science is about governance, government affairs, comparative analysis of different political theories and political decisions. Political science is a wide concept that can vary from state to state while the basic nature of the study remains the same. A level-wise political science is known as state politics, national politics and international politics involving different countries. Each level has its laws and strategies for decisions made in politics. The principles for different subdivisions of political science are taught differently. A method of teaching may vary depending on a teacher or college. Many famous methods like psychology, positivisms, cognitive neuroscience and behaviorism are very effective for students to know complex behaviorism among the politicians. These analyzations help in understanding the past political situation and improves the present political matters. The need for applying basic morals combing the complex situations with a need to go beyond the morals are taught in detail by excellent teachers who are passionate about political science.

Another famous method of teaching is through enormous examples. Examples of a simple voting system to passing a bill that has been rejected for 10 years. Every example is discussed in detail with the positive side effects and negative side effects of a decision. This kind of information and knowledge cannot be found in newspapers, mobile phones or anywhere. Being a political science-literate broadens a person’s perspective in the view of the community, state, and nation. It is believed that Aristotle first quoted political science, which at that time didn’t seem like an actual thing. Since the 1800’s the demand for lawyers and politicians increased. Political science became much in demand. Having a political science graduate in a team, is much-added value to the team. Even the campaign management team is a political scientist on a team to analyze the statistics and predict the probability with every step. This type of precise evaluation is used by many other political scientists like journalists who don’t tend to be on any side but give valued facts which they obtained from statistics of the election or political behavior.


A person with knowledge about political science has added value to their analysis and decisions related to politics. It varies from the position of the person in the government or company. Having a strong knowledge decreases the chance of a mislead decision based on the outer facts. Outer facts are the way how politics can look in the eye of the public. a few careers with political science graduation are public administration, political adviser, political scientist, consulting and many more.

International political science is growing popular among the young generation. Many students are eager to know about political behavior in other countries and how a certain international political decision can affect their own country. Growing global companies are hiring international political advisers where they have legal obligations at times regarding their products or services. Top universities in the world are opening up to the sub-divided political science subjects at a graduation level, allowing learners to concentrate on one field. In the end, creating an impact depends entirely on the individual.…